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Wednesday of the Third Week in Lent

Posté par diaconos le 10 mars 2021

Matthew 5:17 “Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I  did not come to abolish but to fulfill.

# Substitution theology, or substitution theory, or super impressionism is a doctrine that Christianity has substituted itself for Judaism in God’s design. In the middle of the second century, Justin of Nablus (100-114 – 162-168) defended Christianity against a fictitious Jewish interlocutor, claiming that the Church was the true Israel. For his part, in the second century, Marcion advocated a wholesale rejection of the Judaic influence on the Christian faith. Marcionism was condemned in 144.

The theology of substitution took an enormous place among the Fathers of the Church: considering that Israel had not converted, since it had not recognised the Messiah, they affirmed that its role was finished, and that the Christians had to replace it. This doctrine was developed by several authors, including: Tertullian (born around 150-160 and died around 230-240) in Carthage. John Chrysostom (349-407), Patriarch of Constantinople, Augustine of Hippo (354-430). In Catholicism, the authorship of substitution theology is generally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. The Council of Florence in the fifteenth century reaffirmed the theology of substitution.

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From the Gospel of Jesus Christ according to Saint Matthew

At that time Jesus said to his disciples: « Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets. Amen, I say to you, before heaven and earth disappear, not one jot or one tittle will disappear from the Law until everything is fulfilled.
Therefore, whoever rejects one of these least commandments, and teaches men to do so, will be declared the least in the kingdom of Heaven. But whoever keeps them and teaches them will be declared great in the kingdom of heaven. «  (Mt 5, 17-19)

Jesus came to fulfil

Jesus did not come to abolish, but to fulfil; no part of God’s law will pass away until all is fulfilled; to break it or to keep it is to be small or great in the kingdom of heaven: and those will not enter it whose righteousness does not surpass that of the Pharisees. What is this superior righteousness, how should the law be interpreted ? Jesus showed this through a series of examples taken from the moral law.

First example : interpretation of the fifth commandment. The law says : « You shall not kill », and the murderer is punishable by judgment. But I say to you that anger or words of contempt or hatred against a brother are a violation of the law and deserve condemnation. No act of piety is possible with these feelings: first go and be reconciled with your brother. Agree quickly with your adversary, while it is time, lest you be condemned.

Second example : interpretation of the sixth commandment. The law says, ‘Thou shalt not commit adultery’; but I say to you that to look upon a woman lustfully is to violate the commandment. It is in the heart that evil must be uprooted, even if it means a sacrifice like plucking out an eye or cutting off a hand. The Law permits divorce, but I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for infidelity, will commit adultery.

Thirdly exaple : the law forbids perjury and commands to keep oaths faithfully, but I say to you, do not swear at all, neither by sacred things nor by earthly things, but be content to affirm the truth by a yes or a no.

Fourth example : It has been said, ‘An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth’; but I say to you, do not resist the wicked, suffer insults and losses, give and lend liberally.

Fifth example : It has been said, ‘You shall love your neighbour and hate your enemy’; but I say to you, ‘Love your enemies, do good to those who curse and persecute you, and pray for them, so that in this way you may be sons of your Father, who gives to all the marks of his goodness. What reward is there for loving those who love you? The supreme goal is the very perfection of God.

If we consider that Jesus characterised the true members of his kingdom, those who hunger and thirst for justice and whose good works men must see, and that he expounded the spirit and practice of this true justice as formulated in the divine law, we will be convinced that there is an intimate link between these two fundamental thoughts.

From this point of view, we understand all the more clearly the statement that he, the Messiah, did not come, did not enter into his ministry to abolish the law or the prophets, as the Jews thought, expecting that their Messiah would transform the whole law. The law and the prophets are the whole Mosaic economy and all the revelations of the old covenant, either as institutions or as holy scripture.

He taught, revealed the full and spiritual meaning of the divine law, which Pharisaism had materialised by its doctrine of outward observances.
He Himself fulfilled the law perfectly by His holy life.
He realised, by all His work and especially by His death, the complete idea of the Old Covenant, with its types, figures, sacrifices, promises and hopes.

This fulfilment, in a higher and more perfect sense, is in turn accomplished by the Gospel of Christ in the hearts of believers. Thus Jesus fulfilled the law and the prophets in an organic and living way, as the flower fulfils the bud, as the fruit fulfils the flower. And if we look further ahead, we can still expect the fulfilment of the most excellent thing in the present economy, our communion with Jesus, the joy of his redeemed ones : « I have told you this so that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be complete » (Jn 15, 11).

One of the least of these commandments is what Jesus referred to as an iota or stroke of a letter. To violate or abolish it in this way, and to teach others to do so, is to expose oneself to occupy only a very inferior degree in the kingdom of heaven.

The expression which Jesus used, He shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven, does not mean that he shall be excluded from eternal bliss (Augustine, Luther, Calvin), which is contrary to the terms; it does not mean that he shall have but a small share in the happiness to come (Meyer), for the Gospel does not teach that there shall be various degrees of that happiness. It means that he will have only a lesser share and an inferior role in the establishment of the reign of God on earth (B. Weiss).

He who believes that he can work more effectively in the work of this reign by freeing himself from obedience to the commandments which seem secondary to him, by abolishing them in his conduct and precepts, is mistaken. It is faithfulness in small things, the scrupulous fulfilment of humble duty, that makes one fit for the kingdom of God. Moreover, these commandments must be considered in their spirit and as a whole, which forms an inviolable whole, the will of God.

Deacon Michel Houyoux

Links to other Christian websites

Reflections on the sacred liturgy : click here to read the paper → Wednesday of the Third Week of Lent

◊ Holy Peter and Paul  : click here to read the paper →  Wednesday of the Third Week of Lent

   St. Ferdinand, St. Gregory & Holy Redeemer

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Mercredi de la troisième semaine du Carême

Posté par diaconos le 10 mars 2021

Mercredi de la troisième semaine du Carême dans Carême 111083037

# La théologie de la substitution, ou théorie de la substitution, ou super impressionnisme est une doctrine selon laquelle le christianisme se serait substitué au judaïsme dans le dessein de Dieu. Au milieu du IIe siècle, Justin de Naplouse (100-114 – 162-168) défendit le christianisme contre un interlocuteur juif fictif, affirma que l’Église fut le véritable Israël. Pour sa part, au IIe siècle, Marcion préconisait de rejeter en bloc l’influence judaïque sur la foi chrétienne. Le marcionisme a été condamné en 144.
La théologie de la substitution prit une place énorme chez les Pères de l’Église : considérant qu’Israël ne s’était pas converti, puisqu’il n’avait pas reconnu le Messie, ils affirmèrent que son rôle était terminé, et que les chrétiens devaient le remplacer. Cette doctrine fut développée par plusieurs auteurs, parmi lesquels : Tertullien (né vers 150-160 et mort vers 230-240) à Carthage. Jean Chrysostome (349-407), patriarche de Constantinople, Augustin d’Hippone (354-430). Dans le catholicisme, la paternité de la théologie de la substitution est généralement attribuée à Paul de Tarse. Le concile de Florence au XVe siècle a réaffirmé la théologie de la substitution.
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De l’Évangile de Jésus Christ selon saint Matthieu

En ce temps-là, Jésus disait à ses disciples : « Ne pensez pas que je sois venu abolir la Loi ou les Prophètes : je ne suis pas venu abolir, mais accomplir. Amen, je vous le dis : Avant que le ciel et la terre disparaissent, pas un seul iota, pas un seul trait ne disparaîtra de la Loi jusqu’à ce que tout se réalise.
Donc, celui qui rejettera un seul de ces plus petits commandements, et qui enseignera aux hommes à faire ainsi, sera déclaré le plus petit dans le royaume des Cieux. Mais celui qui les observera et les enseignera, celui-là sera déclaré grand dans le royaume des Cieux. » (Mt 5, 17-19)

Jésus est venu pour accomplir

 Jésus n’est pas venu pour abolir, mais pour accomplir ; aucun trait de la loi divine ne passera jusqu’à ce que tout ait été accompli ; la violer ou l’observer, c’est être petit ou grand dans le royaume des cieux : et ceux-là n’y entreront pas dont la justice ne surpasse pas celle des pharisiens.

Quelle est cette justice supérieure, comment faut-il interpréter la loi ? Jésus le montra par une série d’exemples empruntés à la loi morale. Premier exemple : interprétation du cinquième commandement. La loi dit : « Tu ne tueras point », et le meurtrier est punissable par le jugement. Mais moi je vous dis que la colère ou des paroles de mépris ou de haine contre un frère sont une violation de la loi et méritent la condamnation. Aucun acte de piété n’est possible dans ces sentiments : va premièrement te réconcilier avec ton frère. Sois promptement d’accord avec ton adversaire, tandis qu’il en est temps, de peur que tu ne sois condamné.

Second exemple : interprétation du sixième commandement. La loi dit : « Tu ne commettras pas  d’adultère » ; mais moi je vous dis que regarder une femme avec convoitise, c’est violer le commandement. C’est dans le cœur qu’il faut déraciner le mal, fût-ce par un sacrifice pareil à celui de s’arracher un œil ou de se couper une main. Ainsi encore, la loi permet le divorce ; mais moi je vous dis que quiconque répudie sa femme, sauf pour cause d’infidélité, l’expose à devenir adultère.

Troisième exemple : La loi interdit le parjure et ordonne de tenir fidèlement les serments ; mais moi je vous dis : Ne jurez pas du tout, ni par des objets sacrés, ni par des choses terrestres ; mais contentez-vous d’affirmer la vérité par un oui ou un non. .

Quatrième exemple : Il a été dit : « œil pour œil, dent pour dent » ; mais moi je vous dis : de ne pas résister au méchant, de souffrir des injures et des pertes, de donner et de prêter libéralement.

Cinquième exemple : Il a été dit : « Tu aimeras ton prochain et tu haïras ton ennemi » ; mais moi je vous dis : « Aimez vos ennemis, faites du bien à ceux qui vous maudissent et vous persécutent, et priez pour eux, afin qu’ainsi vous soyez fils de votre Père, qui donne à tous des marques de sa bonté. Aimer ceux qui vous aiment, de quelle récompense cela est-il digne ? Le but suprême à atteindre, c’est la perfection même de Dieu.

Si l’on considère que Jésus caractérisa les vrais membres de son royaume, ceux qui ont faim et soif de la justice et dont les hommes doivent voir les bonnes œuvres, et qu’il exposa l’esprit et la pratique de cette justice véritable telle que la formule la loi divine, on se convaincra qu’il existe entre ces deux pensées fondamentales un lien intime.

À ce point de vue on comprend d’autant mieux la déclaration que lui, le Messie, n’est pas venu, pas entré dans son ministère pour abolir la loi ou les prophètes, comme le pensèrent les Juifs, qui s’attendirent à ce que leur Messie transformerait toute la loi. La loi et les prophètes, c’est toute l’économie mosaïque et toutes les révélations de l’ancienne alliance, soit comme institutions, soit comme Écriture sainte.

  1. Il a enseigné, révélé le sens complet et spirituel de la loi divine, que le pharisaïsme avait matérialisée par sa doctrine des observances extérieures (versets 20, 21 et suivants).
  2. Il a lui-même accompli parfaitement la loi par sa vie sainte.
  3. Il a réalisé, par toute son œuvre et surtout par sa mort, l’idée complète de l’ancienne alliance, avec ses types, ses figures, ses sacrifices, ses promesses et ses espérances.

Cet accomplissement, dans un sens plus élevé, plus parfait, l’Évangile de Christ l’opère à son tour dans le cœur des croyants. Ainsi Jésus a accompli la loi et les prophètes d’une manière organique et vivante, comme la fleur accomplit le bouton, comme le fruit accomplit la fleur. Et en portant nos regards plus loin, nous pouvons attendre encore pour l’avenir l’accomplissement de ce qu’il y a de plus excellent dans l’économie présente, notre communion avec Jésus, la joie de ses rachetés : «  Je vous ai dit cela pour que ma joie soit en vous, et que votre joie soit parfaite. » (Jn 15,, 11)

Un de ces plus petits commandements, c’est ce que Jésus désigna comme un iota ou un trait de lettre. Le violer ou l’abolir ainsi de fait  et enseigner les autres à le faire, c’est s’exposer à n’occuper qu’un degré très inférieur dans le royaume des cieux.

L’expression dont Jésus se servit : il sera appelé le plus petit dans le royaume des cieux ne signifie pas qu’il sera exclu de la félicité éternelle (Augustin, Luther, Calvin), ce sens est contraire aux termes ; elle ne signifie pas qu’il n’aura qu’une petite part du bonheur à venir (Meyer), car l’Évangile n’enseigne pas qu’il y aura des degrés divers dans ce bonheur. Elle signifie qu’il n’aura qu’une part moindre et un rôle inférieur dans l’établissement du règne de Dieu sur la terre (B. Weiss).

Celui qui croit pouvoir travailler à l’œuvre de ce règne plus efficacement en s’affranchissant de l’obéissance aux commandements qui lui paraissent secondaires, en les abolissant dans sa conduite et ses préceptes, se trompe. C’est la fidélité dans les petites choses, l’accomplissement scrupuleux de l’humble devoir, qui rendent apte au royaume de Dieu. Il faut d’ailleurs envisager ces commandements dans leur esprit et dans leur ensemble, qui forme un tout inviolable, la volonté de Dieu.

Diacre Michel Houyoux

Complément

◊ Diacre Michel Houyoux : cliquez ici pour lire l’article → Si tu veux entrer dans la vie, observe les commandements

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Liens avec d’autres sites Web chrétiens

◊ Père Gilbert Adam : cliquez ici pour lire l’article → Mercredi de la 2e semaine de Carême

◊ Catholique.org.  : cliquez ici pour lire l’article → Jésus est venu accomplir la loi

   Celui qui les observera et les enseignera, celui-là sera déclaré grand. -Lectio Divina

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Publié dans Carême, comportements, Histoire du Salut, Page jeunesse, Religion | Pas de Commentaire »

The Fourth Sunday of Lent

Posté par diaconos le 10 mars 2021

God sent his Son so that the world might be saved through him

 John 3:17 Inspirational Image

# This Sunday is currently also known as Mothering Sunday, Refreshment Sunday, mid-Lent Sunday (in French mi-carême) and Rose Sunday (either because the golden rose (sent by Popes to Catholic sovereigns) used to be blessed at this time, or because the use of rose-colored (rather than violet) vestments was permitted on this day). Historically, the day was also known as « the Sunday of the Five Loaves, » from the story of the miracle of the loaves and fishes.

Before the adoption of the modern « common lectionaries », this narrative was the traditional Gospel reading for this Sunday in Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, and Old Catholic churches. The station church at Rome for this day was Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, one of the seven chief basilicas; the Golden Rose, sent by Popes to Catholic sovereigns, used to be blessed at this time and for this reason the day was sometimes called Dominica de Rosa. In Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran and Old Catholic churches flowers may appear on the high altar and the organ may be played as a solo instrument.

# Moses, the first prophet of Judaism, is the most important figure in the Hebrew Bible, receiving the Law for Judaism, prefiguring Jesus Christ for Christianity and preceding the Prophet Muhammad for Islam. For the Jewish and Christian monotheistic traditions, Moses is the divinely inspired author of the Pentateuch, that is to say, of the first five books of the Bible, books which constitute the Jewish Torah and are called the « Law of Moses » in both religions. Moses also wrote « under the dictation of God » the Decalogue and a whole set of religious, social and dietary laws.

In addition to this idea of a Mosaic writing under God’s dictation known as the « Written Torah », the rabbis also attribute to Moses the « Oral Torah » which is the commentaries to the Law codified in the Mishnah. In Islam, Moses – under the name of Musa – is the prophet most present in the Koran, quoted one hundred and thirty-six times. He is one of the « great prophets », considered as one of the messengers sent by Allah and he announces the Prophet Muhammad. The mosaic narratives of the Koran refer to the Pentateuch and the Aggada but also offer original episodes, insisting on the parallelism between Muhammad and Moses.

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From the Gospel of Jesus Christ according to Saint John

At that time, Jesus said to Nicodemus: « As the bronze serpent was lifted up by Moses in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, so that everyone who believes may have eternal life in him. For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whoever believes in him should not be lost, but should have eternal life.

For God sent his Son into the world, not to judge the world, but that through him the world might be saved. Whoever believes in him escapes judgment, and whoever does not believe is already judged, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. And the Judgement is this: light has come into the world, and men preferred darkness to light, because their works were evil.

He that doeth evil hateth the light: he cometh not into the light, lest his works be reproved: but he that doeth truth cometh into the light, that it may be made manifest that his works were done in union with God.  » (Jn 3, 14-21).

it was necessary that the Son of Man should be raised up

Jesus endeavoured to initiate Nicodemus into heavenly things, which only he alone could reveal. In order to make the mystery of his redemptive work accessible to Nicodemus, Jesus borrowed a magnificent symbol from the Old Testament that was well known to his interlocutor and, applying it to himself, he made a very clear prediction of his death.

The people of Israel, having murmured against God, were punished by the terrible scourge of burning snakes, which caused the death of many of the guilty parties. Then the repentant people, confessing their sin, came to Moses, begging him to intercede for them. In answer to his prayer, the servant of God was commanded to raise up a bronze serpent on a pole, and all those who, believing God’s promise, contemplated this image of the evil from which they were suffering were healed.

In the same way, Jesus added, the Son of Man had to be lifted up; lifted up on the cross first, which would become for him the way to glory. The meaning of the word to be lifted up was confirmed by other statements of Jesus, and also by the fact that in the Aramaic language he spoke, the corresponding term, which he used, meant: to be lifted up on a pole, to be hung or crucified.

It was necessary, Jesus said: a glorious necessity, based on the eternal mercy of God, on his advice already announced by the prophecies, which were fulfilled. The purpose of this work of Jesus’ love was similar to that which was reached in the desert for the dying Israelites: that whoever does not perish in his sin, as the guilty perished in the desert, may have eternal life.

This last word is found here for the first time in the Gospel. It was repeated many times in the following. The gift of eternal life implies forgiveness, reconciliation with God, but the participation of the saved soul in the life of God himself, imperishable and blessed life.

God loved so much: this love is the principle and the supreme source of salvation. He has loved the world, this fallen, sinful world, in revolt against him; he has loved our entire humanity for which he intended this manifestation of his love. He not only sent, but abandoned, what he held dearest, his only Son : « He who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how can he not also give us all things with him?  « (Rom 8, 32).

He requires of every man, in order that he may not perish in his sin and misery, only that he put all the trust of his Heart in him. Finally, he opened to the eyes of this believer the immense and blessed prospects of eternal life. The word of the only Son is proper to John, but why would Jesus not have used it, he who so often calls himself the Son ?

Jesus confirmed that the purpose of his coming into the world was to manifest God’s eternal love and not to judge the world. The purpose of this love is so universal that the whole world could be saved by Jesus Christ. This universality of salvation is expressed in the most solemn way by the triple repetition of the word world.

But Jesus, in proclaiming the merciful purpose of his coming, was far from denying the Final Judgement, which is reserved for him at the end of time, and which he announced in the most solemn manner: « Do not marvel at this, for the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out of them.

Those who have done good will rise for life, but those who have done evil will rise for judgment. « (Jn 5:28-29) While on earth, while proclaiming the mercy of God, Jesus, through the power of truth, exercised another present, inner judgment from which no man can escape. « Then Jesus said, ‘I have come into this world for judgment, that those who do not see may see, and those who see may become blind.  » (Jn 9:39)

Jesus, who has just revealed redemptive love to the whole world, now reveals to Nicodemus the nature of true judgement. And this revelation too is a complete transformation of the received opinion. It will not be between Jews and Gentiles, it will be between believers and unbelievers, whatever their nationality, that the dividing line will be crossed. (Bucket)

Since the Son of God did not come to judge but to save, he who believes in him, who has embraced divine grace in him, who has given himself to him, is not judged. Judgment must indeed have been exercised in his conscience, by the truth, and brought him to repentance, but now he is freed from it and breathes in the atmosphere of divine grace and love, he has the testimony of it within him : « He that believeth in the Son of God hath this testimony in himself; he that believeth not God maketh him a liar, because he believeth not the testimony which God hath given to his Son. « (1 Jn 5, 10)

Jesus confirmed that the purpose of his coming into the world was to manifest God’s eternal love and not to judge the world. The purpose of this love is so universal that the whole world could be saved by Jesus Christ. This universality of salvation is expressed in the most solemn way by the triple repetition of the word world.

But Jesus, in proclaiming the merciful purpose of his coming, was far from denying the Final Judgement, which is reserved for him at the end of time, and which he announced in the most solemn manner : « Do not marvel at this, for the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out of them. »

Those who have done good will rise for life, but those who have done evil will rise for judgment. « (Jn 5:28-29) While on earth, while proclaiming the mercy of God, Jesus, through the power of truth, exercised another present, inner judgment from which no man can escape. « Then Jesus said, ‘I have come into this world for judgment, that those who do not see may see, and those who see may become blind. « (Jn 9, 39)

Jesus, who has just revealed redemptive love to the whole world, now reveals to Nicodemus the nature of true judgement. And this revelation too is a complete transformation of the received opinion. It will not be between Jews and Gentiles, it will be between believers and unbelievers, whatever their nationality, that the dividing line will be crossed. (Godet)

Since the Son of God did not come to judge but to save, he who believes in him, who has embraced divine grace in him, who has given himself to him, is not judged. Judgment must indeed have been exercised in his conscience, by the truth, and brought him to repentance, but now he is freed from it and breathes in the atmosphere of divine grace and love, he has the testimony of it within him: « He that believeth in the Son of God hath this testimony in himself; he that believeth not God maketh him a liar, because he believeth not the testimony which God hath given to his Son. « (1 Jn 5, 10)

Jesus confirmed this saying by declaring that the believer is freed even from the final judgment : « Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believeth in him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into judgment, but is passed from death unto life. (Jn 5, 24), where he will only appear to see his state of mind brought to light.

Jesus affirmed : « He who does not believe, who persists in his unbelief, is already judged », by the mere fact that the only Son of God presented himself to him, full of grace and truth, and that he rejected him by closing his heart to him. He remains in his sin, to which he has added the gravest sin, contempt for God’s mercy.

He who believes in the Son of God has this testimony in himself; he who does not believe God makes him a liar, because he does not believe the testimony that God gave to his Son. Jesus penetrated even deeper into the soul and discovered the nature and cause of judgement. It is because light has appeared in the world through the coming of Jesus, and in his presence, a decision, a crisis, a judgement takes place in every soul: either it loves light and gives itself to the One who makes it shine, or it prefers error, lies and evil, and takes refuge in it in order to give itself up to its works which were evil and which remain so.

By rejecting Jesus man judges himself. The most rigorous investigation into his entire life would not find him any better disposed. Whoever does evil works or does evil not only dislikes the light, but hates it, because it reveals, accuses and condemns the intimate dispositions of his heart, and he is careful not to come to the light, that is, to come close to Jesus; for he knows that his works would be taken up again, convinced of guilt, as in a court of law.

It is quite different for those who practise truth, moral truth, which in John’s writings is often almost synonymous with holiness, and which is quite the opposite of evil works, or evil. To do the truth means to make a persevering effort to raise one’s conduct to the height of one’s moral knowledge, to realise the ideal of goodness as perceived by one’s conscience. (Gdet)

He who acts in this way comes to the light, approaches Jesus with confidence, not fearing, but desiring, that his works may be made manifest. It is that he has in him the testimony that his works, his life, the dispositions of his heart are made in God, in communion with him, in conformity with his spirit and his will.

Deacon Michel Houyoux

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Links to other Christian websites

◊  Ignatius Pew Missal : click here ti read the paper →  Fourth Sunday of Lent (“Lætare” Sunday) (Year B)

◊ By Rev. Fr. Njoku Canice Chukwuemeka, C.S.Sp.  : click here ti read the paper → Homily For The 4th (Laetare) Sunday Of Lent, Year B .

   Homily by Fr. Peter Rocca, C.S.C.,

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Publié dans Carême, Histoire du Salut, La messe du dimanche, Religion | Pas de Commentaire »

 

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